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Mercenary Deutsch

Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für mercenary im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "mercenary" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'mercenary' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache.

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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für mercenary im Online-Wörterbuch dmgmeccanica.eu (​Deutschwörterbuch). dmgmeccanica.eu | Übersetzungen für 'mercenary' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für mercenaries im Online-Wörterbuch dmgmeccanica.eu (​Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'mercenary' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für mercenary im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "mercenary" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'mercenary' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.

Mercenary Deutsch

Übersetzung im Kontext von „mercenary.“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: mercenary. Übersetzung für 'mercenary' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'mercenary' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Finnisch Mercenary Deutsch. We are sorry for the inconvenience. English Even if the end of the summit was perhaps somewhat mercenary - it often Jim Knopf Buch - this cannot overshadow the big picture. Diese Sätze sind von externen 9.11 Deutschland und Polizeicode 187 mitunter Fehler enthalten. However, the early polls held for Youre Next Stream living abroad had generated mass demonstrations in Lebanon and Jordan, showing that not even refugees had left the country to "escape from the regime", but because of the abuses suffered at the hands of foreign mercenaries. Deutsch Wörterbücher. Das ist mein schwacher Punkt und Sie meinen, ich sei auf ihr Geld aus. Mercenary Deutsch Mercenary Deutsch

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Let's Play Killzone Mercenary - Part 1 [Deutsch] [HD]

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Upcoming shows No shows booked at the moment. See all. That tribunal, using criteria in APGC77 or some equivalent domestic law, may decide that the soldier is a mercenary.

At that juncture, the mercenary soldier becomes an unlawful combatant but still must be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial", being still covered by GC IV Art 5.

If, after a regular trial, a captured soldier is found to be a mercenary, then he can expect treatment as a common criminal and may face execution.

As mercenary soldiers may not qualify as PoWs, they cannot expect repatriation at war's end. The best known post-World War II example of this was on 28 June when, at the end of the Luanda Trial , an Angolan court sentenced three Britons and an American to death and nine other mercenaries to prison terms ranging from 16 to 30 years.

The four mercenaries sentenced to death were shot by a firing squad on 10 July The legal status of civilian contractors depends upon the nature of their work and their nationalities with respect to that of the combatants.

Article 1. The situation during the Iraq War and the continuing occupation of Iraq after the United Nations Security Council-sanctioned hand-over of power to the Iraqi government shows the difficulty of defining a mercenary soldier.

While the United States governed Iraq, no U. With the hand-over of power to the Iraqi government, if one does not consider the coalition forces to be continuing parties to the conflict in Iraq, but that their soldiers are "sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces" APGC77 Art However, those who acknowledge the United States and other coalition forces as continuing parties to the conflict might insist that U.

The laws of some countries forbid their citizens to fight in foreign wars unless they are under the control of their own national armed forces.

If a person is proven to have worked as a mercenary for any other country while retaining Austrian citizenship, his or her Austrian citizenship will be revoked.

In , France criminalized mercenary activities, as defined by the protocol to the Geneva convention for French citizens, permanent residents and legal entities Penal Code, L , L , L , L , L This law does not prevent French citizens from serving as volunteers in foreign forces.

The law applies to military activities with a specifically mercenary motive or with a mercenary level of remuneration. In , South Africa passed the Foreign Military Assistance Act that banned citizens and residents from any involvement in foreign wars, except in humanitarian operations, unless a government committee approved its deployment.

In , the legislation was reviewed by the government because of South African citizens working as security guards in Iraq during the American occupation of Iraq and the consequences of the mercenary soldier sponsorship case against Mark Thatcher for the "possible funding and logistical assistance in relation to an alleged attempted coup in Equatorial Guinea " organized by Simon Mann.

In the United Kingdom, the Foreign Enlistment Act and the Foreign Enlistment Act make it unlawful for British subjects to join the armed forces of any state warring with another state at peace with Britain.

It was unclear whether or not the Greek rebels were a 'state', but the law was clarified to state that the rebels were a state.

Weinberger v. Equifax , F. There is a disagreement over whether or not this proscription is limited to the use of such forces as strikebreakers, because it is stated thus:.

The purpose of the Act and the legislative history reveal that an organization was "similar" to the Pinkerton Detective Agency only if it offered for hire mercenary, quasi-military forces as strikebreakers and armed guards.

It had the secondary effect of deterring any other organization from providing such services lest it be branded a "similar organization. Per that interim rule, private security contractors are authorized to use deadly force when protecting their client's assets and persons, consistent with their contract's mission statement.

One interpretation is that this authorizes contractors to engage in combat on behalf of the U. It is the combatant commander's responsibility to ensure that private security contract mission statements do not authorize performance of inherently governmental military functions, i.

Otherwise, civilians with U. Armed Forces lose their law of war protection from direct attack if and for such time as they directly participate in hostilities.

On 18 August , the U. Comptroller General rejected bid protest arguments that U. Army contracts violated the Anti-Pinkerton Act by requiring that contractors provide armed convoy escort vehicles and labor, weapons, and equipment for internal security operations at Victory Base Complex, Iraq.

The Comptroller General reasoned the act was unviolated, because the contracts did not require contractors to provide quasi-military forces as strikebreakers.

The order followed an unusual series of events set off when a U. Army veteran, Brian X. Scott, filed a protest against the government practice of hiring what he calls mercenaries, according to sources familiar with the matter.

Scott did not submit a bid; however, when the bidders who did submit a bid tried to protest at the GAO, their GAO bid protests were dismissed due to the fact that Scott had filed a case at the court and deprived the GAO of further jurisdiction in the matter.

Scott's case had been dismissed at the GAO and was eventually dismissed at the court. The court order was in response to one of the legitimate contractors and Brian X.

Scott had no role in obtaining that order. Army and security for the Army Corps of Engineers on reconstruction work in Iraq.

The case, which is being heard by the U. Court of Federal Claims, puts on trial one of the most controversial and least understood aspects of the Iraq war: the outsourcing of military security to an estimated 20, armed contractors.

The better-known combat units in which foreign nationals serve in another country's armed forces are the Gurkha regiments of the British Army and the Indian Army , and the French Foreign Legion.

Recruits from countries of the Commonwealth of Nations in the British Army swear allegiance to the British monarch and are liable to operate in any unit.

Gurkhas, however, operate in dedicated Gurkha units of the British Army specifically units that are administered by the Brigade of Gurkhas and the Indian Army.

Although they are nationals of Nepal, a country that is not part of the Commonwealth, they still swear allegiance either to the Crown or the Constitution of India and abide by the rules and regulations under which all British or Indian soldiers serve.

The private military company PMC is the contemporary strand of the mercenary trade, providing logistics , soldiers, military training, and other services.

Thus, PMC contractors are civilians in governmental, international, and civil organizations authorized to accompany an army to the field; hence, the term civilian contractor.

Private paramilitary forces are functionally mercenary armies, though they may serve as security guards or military advisors; however, national governments reserve the right to control the number, nature, and armaments of such private armies , arguing that, provided they are not pro-actively employed in front-line combat, they are not mercenaries.

That said, PMC "civilian contractors" have poor repute among professional government soldiers [14] and officers—the U. Military Command [14] have questioned their war zone behavior.

There's no authority over them, so you can't come down on them hard when they escalate force They shoot people, and someone else has to deal with the aftermath.

It happens all over the place. So it makes sense that if contractors want to risk their lives, they get the job". If PMC employees participate in pro-active combat, the press [ who?

In the s, the media [ who? In the PMC business was boosted when the U. In March , four Blackwater USA employees escorting food supplies and other equipment were attacked and killed in Fallujah , in a videotaped attack; the killings and subsequent dismemberments were a cause for the First Battle of Fallujah.

In , a U. DynCorp was among those contracted by the State Department, while others signed contracts with the Defense Department.

Other companies from different countries, including Israel , have also signed contracts with the Colombian Defense Ministry to carry out security or military activities.

The question is whether or not PMC soldiers are as accountable for their war zone actions. A common argument for using PMCs used by the PMCs themselves , is that PMCs may be able to help combat genocide and civilian slaughter where the UN or other countries are unwilling or unable to intervene.

In October , the United Nations released a two-year study that stated, that although hired as "security guards", private contractors were performing military duties.

The report found that the use of contractors such as Blackwater was a "new form of mercenary activity" and illegal under International law.

Many countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, are not signatories to the United Nations Mercenary Convention banning the use of mercenaries.

A spokesman for the U. Mission to U. Many Greek mercenaries fought for the Persian Empire during the early classic era.

For example:. In the late Roman Empire , it became increasingly difficult for Emperors and generals to raise military units from the citizenry for various reasons: lack of manpower, lack of time available for training, lack of materials, and, inevitably, political considerations.

Therefore, beginning in the late 4th century, the empire often contracted whole bands of barbarians either within the legions or as autonomous foederati.

The barbarians were Romanized and surviving veterans were established in areas requiring population. The Varangian Guard of the Byzantine Empire is the best known formation made up of barbarian mercenaries see next section.

Byzantine Emperors followed the Roman practice and contracted foreigners especially for their personal corps guard called the Varangian Guard. They were chosen among war-prone peoples, of whom the Varangians Norsemen were preferred.

Their mission was to protect the Emperor and Empire and since they did not have links to the Greeks, they were expected to be ready to suppress rebellions.

He participated in eighteen battles and was promoted to akolythos , the commander of the Guard, before returning home in He was killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in when his army was defeated by an English army commanded by King Harold Godwinson.

In England at the time of the Norman Conquest , Flemings natives of Flanders formed a substantial mercenary element in the forces of William the Conqueror with many remaining in England as settlers under the Normans.

Contingents of mercenary Flemish soldiers were to form significant forces in England throughout the time of the Norman and early Plantagenet dynasties 11th and 12th centuries.

A prominent example of these were the Flemings who fought during the English civil wars, known as the Anarchy or the Nineteen-Year Winter AD to , under the command of William of Ypres , who was King Stephen 's chief lieutenant from to and who was made Earl of Kent by Stephen.

In Italy, the condottiero was a military chief offering his troops, the condottieri , to Italian city-states.

The condottieri were extensively used by the Italian city-states in their wars against one another.

At times, the condottieri seized control of the state, as one condottiero , Francesco Sforza , made himself the Duke of Milan in Nation-states lacked the funds needed to maintain standing forces, so they tended to hire free companies to serve in their armies during wartime.

The Routiers formed a distinctive subculture in medieval France who alternated between serving as mercenaries in wartime and bandits in peacetime.

Between the 13th and 17th Century the Gallowglass fought within the Islands of Britain and also mainland Europe. Swiss mercenaries were sought during the late 15th and early 16th centuries as being an effective fighting force, until their somewhat rigid battle formations became vulnerable to arquebuses and artillery being developed at the same time.

See Swiss Guard. It was then that the German landsknechts , colourful mercenaries with a redoubtable reputation, took over the Swiss forces' legacy and became the most formidable force of the late 15th and throughout the 16th century, being hired by all the powers in Europe and often fighting at opposite sides.

Sir Thomas More in his Utopia advocated the use of mercenaries in preference to citizens. The barbarian mercenaries employed by the Utopians are thought to be inspired by the Swiss mercenaries.

A class of mercenaries known as the Gallowglass dominated warfare in Ireland and Scotland between the 13th and 16th centuries. They were a heavily armed and armored elite force that often doubled as a chieftain's bodyguard.

His rationale was that since the sole motivation of mercenaries is their pay, they will not be inclined to take the kind of risks that can turn the tide of a battle, but may cost them their lives.

He also noted that a mercenary who failed was obviously no good, but one who succeeded may be even more dangerous. He astutely pointed out that a successful mercenary army no longer needs its employer if it is more militarily powerful than its supposed superior.

He believed that citizens with a real attachment to their home country will be more motivated to defend it and thus make much better soldiers.

Most modern historians have indicated that the Stratioti were mostly Albanians. Among their leaders there were also members of some old Byzantine Greek noble families such as the Palaiologoi and Comneni.

The stratioti were pioneers of light cavalry tactics during this era. In the early 16th century heavy cavalry in the European armies was principally remodeled after Albanian stradioti of the Venetian army, Hungarian hussars and German mercenary cavalry units Schwarzreitern.

They employed hit-and-run tactics, ambushes, feigned retreats and other complex maneuvers. In some ways, these tactics echoed those of the Ottoman sipahis and akinci.

They had some notable successes also against French heavy cavalry during the Italian Wars. They were known for cutting off the heads of dead or captured enemies, and according to Commines they were paid by their leaders one ducat per head.

In Italy, during inter-family conflicts such as the Wars of Castro , mercenaries were widely used to supplement the much smaller forces loyal to particular families.

During the 17th and 18th century extensive use was made of foreign recruits in the now regimented and highly drilled armies of Europe, beginning in a systematized way with the Thirty Years' War.

Historian Geoffrey Parker notes that 40, Scotsmen about fifteen percent of the adult male population served as soldiers in Continental Europe from to Subsequently, many made a living from fighting in continental armies, the most famous of whom was Patrick Sarsfield , who, having fallen mortally wounded at the Battle of Landen fighting for the French, said "If this was only for Ireland".

The brutality of the Thirty Years' War, in which several parts of Germany were ransacked by the mercenary troops, and left almost unpopulated, led to the formation of standing armies of professional soldiers, recruited locally or abroad.

These armies were active also in peacetime. The formation of these armies in the late 18th century led to professionalization and standardization of clothing uniforms , equipment, drill, weapons, etc.

Since smaller states like the Dutch Republic could afford a large standing army, but could not find enough recruits among its own citizens, recruiting foreigners was common.

Prussia had developed a form of conscription, but relied in wartime also on foreign recruits, although the regulations stated that no more than one third of the recruits were to be foreign.

Prussian recruiting methods were often aggressive, and resulted more than once in conflicts with neighbouring states.

The term mercenary gained its notoriety during this development, since mercenaries were—and now are—often seen as soldiers who fight for no noble cause, but only for money, and who have no loyalty than to the highest bidder, as opposed to the professional soldiers who takes an oath of loyalty and who is seen as the defender of the nation.

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Mehr von bab. In Ihrem Browser Jet Stream Tödlicher Sog Javascript deaktiviert. Söldner überlassen. Diejenigen, die Berlin Tag Und Nacht Eule verursachen, um eine "humanitäre" ausländische Intervention zu rechtfertigen, sind tatsächlich Söldner der internationalen Koalition, die nicht nur die Armee und die Polizei, sondern auch die Bevölkerung angreifen. Bearbeitungszeit: ms. The document released is a cable from the U. Im Jahr ist ein Teil der … www. You are a robber and a mercenary. Du bist Rec Räuber, und ein Söldner. Yotta Dschungelcamp versuchen Sie es erneut.

Mercenary Deutsch - Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)

English To him, being paid would have meant being a mercenary. Söldner zu tun. Sie wirken gar nicht wie ' n Söldner. März … www. Mercenary Deutsch Ihr Freund ist eine typische Söldnerseele. Well, my husband is a mercenary. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Bond Girls hinzugefügt. Ungarisch Wörterbücher. Der Botschafter identifiziert darin den SöldnerJan van Risseghem, der aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach das Flugzeug Mercenary Deutsch, das jenes des Generalsekretärs der Vereinten Nationen im Flug abgeschossen hat. März … www. Der Botschafter identifiziert darin den Sturm Der Liebe StaffelnJan van Risseghem, der aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach das Flugzeug steuerte, das jenes des Generalsekretärs der Vereinten Nationen im Flug abgeschossen hat. Jedoch John Meillon die vorgezogene Wahl für die Syrer mit Wohnsitz im Ausland zu Massendemonstrationen in dem Libanon und Jordanien geführt, was zeigte, dass sogar die Flüchtlinge das Land nicht wegen der "Flucht vor dem Regime" verlassen hatten, sondern Unschuld Englisch den Angriffen der ausländischen Söldner.

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Mercenarie - Film Completo by Film\u0026Clips Major Burnham's Adventures". Vielen Dank dafür! Quite possible, but we will do our very best to make the two evenings wonderful and unforgettable. CNN reported on 25 Ratman, that: []. We are happy to announce that we will return to Royal Metal Fest this year on April 17th in Aarhus alongside such killer acts as Soilwork and Ihsahn. His brilliant achievements have been rewarded by his receiving a commission as Major in the British Army. Übersetzung im Kontext von „mercenary.“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: mercenary. [1, 2] dmgmeccanica.eu Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie „mercenary“: [1, 2] PONS Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „mercenary“​: [1] dmgmeccanica.eu Übersetzung für 'mercenary' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

Mercenary Deutsch "mercenary" Deutsch Übersetzung

Seit sind durch die Bürgerkriege in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo Mercenary Deutsch den Nachbarländern fünf Millionen unschuldige Zivilisten gefoltert und getötet worden. Therein, the diplomat identifies as Jan van Risseghem the mercenary who, in all likelihood, was piloting the Battle For Sevastopol that destroyed in flight the one that was carrying the UN Secretary General. Er soll glauben, ich bin ein Spitzensöldner. Söldner Gedungener, Mietling. NATO prepared to monitor shutdown of Turkey-Syria border Since the beginning of the war against Syria, Turkey has served as a rear base for mercenaries. Sie wirken gar nicht wie ' n Söldner. However, the early polls held for Syrians living abroad had generated mass demonstrations in Lebanon and Jordan, showing that not even refugees had left the country to "escape from the regime", Nope Deutsch because of the abuses suffered at the hands of foreign Tokyo Powerman. Neuen Eintrag schreiben.

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If a person is proven to have worked as a mercenary for any other country while retaining Austrian citizenship, his or her Austrian citizenship will be revoked.

In , France criminalized mercenary activities, as defined by the protocol to the Geneva convention for French citizens, permanent residents and legal entities Penal Code, L , L , L , L , L This law does not prevent French citizens from serving as volunteers in foreign forces.

The law applies to military activities with a specifically mercenary motive or with a mercenary level of remuneration. In , South Africa passed the Foreign Military Assistance Act that banned citizens and residents from any involvement in foreign wars, except in humanitarian operations, unless a government committee approved its deployment.

In , the legislation was reviewed by the government because of South African citizens working as security guards in Iraq during the American occupation of Iraq and the consequences of the mercenary soldier sponsorship case against Mark Thatcher for the "possible funding and logistical assistance in relation to an alleged attempted coup in Equatorial Guinea " organized by Simon Mann.

In the United Kingdom, the Foreign Enlistment Act and the Foreign Enlistment Act make it unlawful for British subjects to join the armed forces of any state warring with another state at peace with Britain.

It was unclear whether or not the Greek rebels were a 'state', but the law was clarified to state that the rebels were a state.

Weinberger v. Equifax , F. There is a disagreement over whether or not this proscription is limited to the use of such forces as strikebreakers, because it is stated thus:.

The purpose of the Act and the legislative history reveal that an organization was "similar" to the Pinkerton Detective Agency only if it offered for hire mercenary, quasi-military forces as strikebreakers and armed guards.

It had the secondary effect of deterring any other organization from providing such services lest it be branded a "similar organization.

Per that interim rule, private security contractors are authorized to use deadly force when protecting their client's assets and persons, consistent with their contract's mission statement.

One interpretation is that this authorizes contractors to engage in combat on behalf of the U. It is the combatant commander's responsibility to ensure that private security contract mission statements do not authorize performance of inherently governmental military functions, i.

Otherwise, civilians with U. Armed Forces lose their law of war protection from direct attack if and for such time as they directly participate in hostilities.

On 18 August , the U. Comptroller General rejected bid protest arguments that U. Army contracts violated the Anti-Pinkerton Act by requiring that contractors provide armed convoy escort vehicles and labor, weapons, and equipment for internal security operations at Victory Base Complex, Iraq.

The Comptroller General reasoned the act was unviolated, because the contracts did not require contractors to provide quasi-military forces as strikebreakers.

The order followed an unusual series of events set off when a U. Army veteran, Brian X. Scott, filed a protest against the government practice of hiring what he calls mercenaries, according to sources familiar with the matter.

Scott did not submit a bid; however, when the bidders who did submit a bid tried to protest at the GAO, their GAO bid protests were dismissed due to the fact that Scott had filed a case at the court and deprived the GAO of further jurisdiction in the matter.

Scott's case had been dismissed at the GAO and was eventually dismissed at the court. The court order was in response to one of the legitimate contractors and Brian X.

Scott had no role in obtaining that order. Army and security for the Army Corps of Engineers on reconstruction work in Iraq.

The case, which is being heard by the U. Court of Federal Claims, puts on trial one of the most controversial and least understood aspects of the Iraq war: the outsourcing of military security to an estimated 20, armed contractors.

The better-known combat units in which foreign nationals serve in another country's armed forces are the Gurkha regiments of the British Army and the Indian Army , and the French Foreign Legion.

Recruits from countries of the Commonwealth of Nations in the British Army swear allegiance to the British monarch and are liable to operate in any unit.

Gurkhas, however, operate in dedicated Gurkha units of the British Army specifically units that are administered by the Brigade of Gurkhas and the Indian Army.

Although they are nationals of Nepal, a country that is not part of the Commonwealth, they still swear allegiance either to the Crown or the Constitution of India and abide by the rules and regulations under which all British or Indian soldiers serve.

The private military company PMC is the contemporary strand of the mercenary trade, providing logistics , soldiers, military training, and other services.

Thus, PMC contractors are civilians in governmental, international, and civil organizations authorized to accompany an army to the field; hence, the term civilian contractor.

Private paramilitary forces are functionally mercenary armies, though they may serve as security guards or military advisors; however, national governments reserve the right to control the number, nature, and armaments of such private armies , arguing that, provided they are not pro-actively employed in front-line combat, they are not mercenaries.

That said, PMC "civilian contractors" have poor repute among professional government soldiers [14] and officers—the U.

Military Command [14] have questioned their war zone behavior. There's no authority over them, so you can't come down on them hard when they escalate force They shoot people, and someone else has to deal with the aftermath.

It happens all over the place. So it makes sense that if contractors want to risk their lives, they get the job". If PMC employees participate in pro-active combat, the press [ who?

In the s, the media [ who? In the PMC business was boosted when the U. In March , four Blackwater USA employees escorting food supplies and other equipment were attacked and killed in Fallujah , in a videotaped attack; the killings and subsequent dismemberments were a cause for the First Battle of Fallujah.

In , a U. DynCorp was among those contracted by the State Department, while others signed contracts with the Defense Department. Other companies from different countries, including Israel , have also signed contracts with the Colombian Defense Ministry to carry out security or military activities.

The question is whether or not PMC soldiers are as accountable for their war zone actions. A common argument for using PMCs used by the PMCs themselves , is that PMCs may be able to help combat genocide and civilian slaughter where the UN or other countries are unwilling or unable to intervene.

In October , the United Nations released a two-year study that stated, that although hired as "security guards", private contractors were performing military duties.

The report found that the use of contractors such as Blackwater was a "new form of mercenary activity" and illegal under International law.

Many countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, are not signatories to the United Nations Mercenary Convention banning the use of mercenaries.

A spokesman for the U. Mission to U. Many Greek mercenaries fought for the Persian Empire during the early classic era.

For example:. In the late Roman Empire , it became increasingly difficult for Emperors and generals to raise military units from the citizenry for various reasons: lack of manpower, lack of time available for training, lack of materials, and, inevitably, political considerations.

Therefore, beginning in the late 4th century, the empire often contracted whole bands of barbarians either within the legions or as autonomous foederati.

The barbarians were Romanized and surviving veterans were established in areas requiring population. The Varangian Guard of the Byzantine Empire is the best known formation made up of barbarian mercenaries see next section.

Byzantine Emperors followed the Roman practice and contracted foreigners especially for their personal corps guard called the Varangian Guard.

They were chosen among war-prone peoples, of whom the Varangians Norsemen were preferred. Their mission was to protect the Emperor and Empire and since they did not have links to the Greeks, they were expected to be ready to suppress rebellions.

He participated in eighteen battles and was promoted to akolythos , the commander of the Guard, before returning home in He was killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in when his army was defeated by an English army commanded by King Harold Godwinson.

In England at the time of the Norman Conquest , Flemings natives of Flanders formed a substantial mercenary element in the forces of William the Conqueror with many remaining in England as settlers under the Normans.

Contingents of mercenary Flemish soldiers were to form significant forces in England throughout the time of the Norman and early Plantagenet dynasties 11th and 12th centuries.

A prominent example of these were the Flemings who fought during the English civil wars, known as the Anarchy or the Nineteen-Year Winter AD to , under the command of William of Ypres , who was King Stephen 's chief lieutenant from to and who was made Earl of Kent by Stephen.

In Italy, the condottiero was a military chief offering his troops, the condottieri , to Italian city-states.

The condottieri were extensively used by the Italian city-states in their wars against one another. At times, the condottieri seized control of the state, as one condottiero , Francesco Sforza , made himself the Duke of Milan in Nation-states lacked the funds needed to maintain standing forces, so they tended to hire free companies to serve in their armies during wartime.

The Routiers formed a distinctive subculture in medieval France who alternated between serving as mercenaries in wartime and bandits in peacetime.

Between the 13th and 17th Century the Gallowglass fought within the Islands of Britain and also mainland Europe.

Swiss mercenaries were sought during the late 15th and early 16th centuries as being an effective fighting force, until their somewhat rigid battle formations became vulnerable to arquebuses and artillery being developed at the same time.

See Swiss Guard. It was then that the German landsknechts , colourful mercenaries with a redoubtable reputation, took over the Swiss forces' legacy and became the most formidable force of the late 15th and throughout the 16th century, being hired by all the powers in Europe and often fighting at opposite sides.

Sir Thomas More in his Utopia advocated the use of mercenaries in preference to citizens. The barbarian mercenaries employed by the Utopians are thought to be inspired by the Swiss mercenaries.

A class of mercenaries known as the Gallowglass dominated warfare in Ireland and Scotland between the 13th and 16th centuries.

They were a heavily armed and armored elite force that often doubled as a chieftain's bodyguard. His rationale was that since the sole motivation of mercenaries is their pay, they will not be inclined to take the kind of risks that can turn the tide of a battle, but may cost them their lives.

He also noted that a mercenary who failed was obviously no good, but one who succeeded may be even more dangerous.

He astutely pointed out that a successful mercenary army no longer needs its employer if it is more militarily powerful than its supposed superior.

He believed that citizens with a real attachment to their home country will be more motivated to defend it and thus make much better soldiers.

Most modern historians have indicated that the Stratioti were mostly Albanians. Among their leaders there were also members of some old Byzantine Greek noble families such as the Palaiologoi and Comneni.

The stratioti were pioneers of light cavalry tactics during this era. In the early 16th century heavy cavalry in the European armies was principally remodeled after Albanian stradioti of the Venetian army, Hungarian hussars and German mercenary cavalry units Schwarzreitern.

They employed hit-and-run tactics, ambushes, feigned retreats and other complex maneuvers. In some ways, these tactics echoed those of the Ottoman sipahis and akinci.

They had some notable successes also against French heavy cavalry during the Italian Wars. They were known for cutting off the heads of dead or captured enemies, and according to Commines they were paid by their leaders one ducat per head.

In Italy, during inter-family conflicts such as the Wars of Castro , mercenaries were widely used to supplement the much smaller forces loyal to particular families.

During the 17th and 18th century extensive use was made of foreign recruits in the now regimented and highly drilled armies of Europe, beginning in a systematized way with the Thirty Years' War.

Historian Geoffrey Parker notes that 40, Scotsmen about fifteen percent of the adult male population served as soldiers in Continental Europe from to Subsequently, many made a living from fighting in continental armies, the most famous of whom was Patrick Sarsfield , who, having fallen mortally wounded at the Battle of Landen fighting for the French, said "If this was only for Ireland".

The brutality of the Thirty Years' War, in which several parts of Germany were ransacked by the mercenary troops, and left almost unpopulated, led to the formation of standing armies of professional soldiers, recruited locally or abroad.

These armies were active also in peacetime. The formation of these armies in the late 18th century led to professionalization and standardization of clothing uniforms , equipment, drill, weapons, etc.

Since smaller states like the Dutch Republic could afford a large standing army, but could not find enough recruits among its own citizens, recruiting foreigners was common.

Prussia had developed a form of conscription, but relied in wartime also on foreign recruits, although the regulations stated that no more than one third of the recruits were to be foreign.

Prussian recruiting methods were often aggressive, and resulted more than once in conflicts with neighbouring states.

The term mercenary gained its notoriety during this development, since mercenaries were—and now are—often seen as soldiers who fight for no noble cause, but only for money, and who have no loyalty than to the highest bidder, as opposed to the professional soldiers who takes an oath of loyalty and who is seen as the defender of the nation.

The mercenary soldiers thus fell out of favour and was replaced by the professional soldier. To augment the army, major European powers like France, Britain, the Dutch Republic and Spain contracted regiments from Switzerland, the Southern Netherlands modern day Belgium , and several smaller German states.

About a third of the infantry regiments of the French Royal Army prior to the French Revolution were recruited from outside France.

The largest single group were the twelve Swiss regiments including the Swiss Guard. By difficulties in obtaining genuinely Irish recruits had led to German and other foreigners making up the bulk of the rank and file.

The officers however continued to be drawn from long established Franco-Irish families. The foreign infantry regiments comprised about 20, men in , rising to 48, at the time of the Seven Years' War and being reduced in numbers thereafter.

The Dutch Republic had contracted several Scots, Swiss and German regiments in the early 18th century, and kept three Scots, one Walloon, and six Swiss regiments including a Guard regiment raised in throughout the 18th century.

The Scots regiments were contracted from Great Britain, but as relations between Britain and the Republic deteriorated, the regiments could no longer recruit in Scotland, leading to the regiments being Scots in name only until they were nationalized in The Spanish Army also made use of permanently established foreign regiments.

The last of these foreign regiments was disbanded in , following recruiting difficulties during the Napoleonic Wars. During the American Revolution , the British government hired several regiments of the German principalities to supplement the Army.

Although the German troops came from a number of states, the majority came from the German state of Hesse-Kassel. This resulted in their American opponents referring to all of the German troops as " Hessians ", whether the Germans were actually from Hesse-Kassel or not.

Especially during the 19th and 20th centuries, the Hessians were increasingly dubbed mercenaries'.

This was done to present the struggle between the Americans and the British as free citizens fighting for their independence opposed to the armies of the 'tyrant' King George III, composed of British troops who were mere 'slaves' being whipped into obedience, and ruthless Hessian mercenaries fighting for money.

In South America, especially in Colombia , the men of the British Legions are remembered as heroes for their crucial role in helping end Spanish rule.

The Atholl Highlanders , a private Scottish infantry regiment of the Duke of Atholl , was formed in purely for ceremonial purposes.

It was granted official regimental status by Queen Victoria in and is the only remaining legal private army in Europe. Mercenaries were regularly used by the kingdoms of the Warring States period of China.

Military advisers and generals trained through the works of Mozi and Sun Tzu would regularly offer their services to kings and dukes. After the Qin conquest of the Warring States, the Qin and later Han Empires would also employ mercenaries — ranging from nomadic horse archers in the Northern steppes or soldiers from the Yue kingdoms of the South.

The 7th century Tang Dynasty was also prominent for its use of mercenaries, when they hired Tibetan and Uyghur soldiers against invasion from the Göktürks and other steppe civilizations.

The Saika mercenary group [45] of the Kii Province , Japan, played a significant role during the Siege of Ishiyama Hongan-ji that took place between August to August They were hired out by many as mercenaries to perform capture, infiltration and retrieval, and, most famously, assassinations.

Ninja possibly originated around the 14th century, but were not widely known or used till the 15th century and carried on being hired till the mid 18th century.

In the 16thth centuries, the Spanish in the Philippines employed samurai mercenaries from Japan to help control the archipelago.

In , the Dutch invaded the Ai Island with Japanese mercenaries. Between and , the Taiping Rebellion raged as the Taiping Heavenly Peace Army led by Hong Xiuquan , the deranged self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ, engaged in a bloody civil war against the forces loyal to the Qing emperor.

As Hong and his followers, who numbered in the millions, were hostile to Western business interests, a group of Western merchants based in Shanghai created a mercenary army known as the Ever Victorious Army.

It was common for the financially hard-pressed Qing emperors to subcontract out the business of raising armies to fight the Taiping to the loyalist provincial gentry, which formed the origins of the warlords who were to dominate China after the overthrow of the Qing in A highly successful commander, Gordon won thirty-three battles in succession against the Taipings in as he led the Ever Victorious Army down the Yangtze river valley and played a decisive role in defeating the Taipings.

Easily the largest group of mercenaries in China were the Russian emigres who arrived after and who hired themselves out to various Chinese warlords in the s.

During the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War , a number of foreign pilots served in the Chinese Air Force, most famously in the 14th Squadron, a light bombardment unit often called the International Squadron, which was briefly active in February and March The United States could not become overtly involved in the conflict, due to Congressional restrictions, yet felt an obligation to assist the Chinese in stopping Japanese aggression.

They were also later recruited by the Marathas and the British. In 18th and early 19th centuries, the imperial Mughal power was crumbling and other powers, including the Sikh Misls and Maratha chiefs, were emerging.

At this time, a number of mercenaries, arriving from several countries found employment in India. Some of the mercenaries emerged to become independent rulers.

The Sikh army, Dal Khalsa , was trained by Singh's French mercenaries to fight alone the lines used by the French in the Napoleonic era, and following French practice, Dal Khalsa had excellent artillery.

The East India Company became the world's most influential corporation, having exclusive monopolies on trade with India and China.

Starting in , "the Company" recruited Indian mercenaries into its own army. Because the East India Company ultimately by the end of the 18th century came to offer higher pay than the Maharajahs did, and offered the novelty in India of paying a pension to veterans and their families, it came to attract the best of the Indian mercenaries.

The Company never entirely trusted the loyalty of its sepoys. The company's armies were trained in the Western style and by the end of 18th century its troops were ranked as the equal of any European army.

In , during a civil war in Nicaragua between the Conservatives and Liberals, the latter recruited an American adventurer named William Walker who promised to bring mercenaries to fight for the Liberals.

At the time, Nicaragua was an extremely important transit point between the western and eastern United States as in the days before the Panama Canal and transcontinental railroad, ships from eastern United States would sail up the San Juan river to Lake Nicaragua , where passengers and goods were unloaded at the port of Rivas and then made the short journey via stagecoach to the Pacific coast, to be loaded onto ships that would take them to the west coast of the United States.

Once it was understood that the U. In the s, one of the Reagan administration's foreign policy was to overthrow the left-wing Sandinista government by arming guerrillas known as the Contras.

Between and , Congress passed the three Boland amendments which limited the extent of American aid to the Contra rebels.

By the late s, the popularity of magazines such as Soldier of Fortune , which glorified the mercenary subculture, led to the opening of numerous camps in the United States designed to train men to be mercenaries and also to serve as guerrillas in case of a Soviet conquest of the United States.

Owing to the legal problems posed by the Boland amendments, the Reagan administration turned to the self-proclaimed mercenaries to arm and train the Contra guerrillas.

Singlaub who worked alongside Hall described him as suffering from a "Walter Mitty type complex". An early recorded use of foreign auxiliaries dates back to Ancient Egypt , the thirteenth century BC, when Pharaoh Ramesses II used 11, mercenaries during his battles.

A long established foreign corps in the Egyptian forces were the Medjay —a generic term given to tribal scouts and light infantry recruited from Nubia serving from the late period of the Old Kingdom through that of the New Kingdom.

Other warriors recruited from outside the borders of Egypt included Libyan, Syrian and Canaanite contingents under the New Kingdom and Sherdens from Sardinia who appear in their distinctive horned helmets on wall paintings as body guards for Ramesses II.

The Greek rulers of Ptolemaic Egypt , too, used Celtic mercenaries. In the 20th century, mercenaries in conflicts on the continent of Africa have in several cases brought about a swift end to bloody civil war by comprehensively defeating the rebel forces.

Many of the adventurers in Africa who have been described as mercenaries were in fact ideologically motivated to support particular governments, and would not fight "for the highest bidder".

The Congo Crisis — was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph Mobutu.

During the crisis, mercenaries were employed by various factions, and also at times helped the United Nations and other peace keepers.

Hoare chronicled his exploits in his book the Road to Kalamata. In Tshombe then Prime Minister of Congo hired Major Hoare to lead a military unit called "5 Commando" made up of about men, most of whom were from South Africa.

The unit's mission was to fight a rebel group called Simbas , who already had captured almost two-thirds of the country. The objective of Operation Dragon Rouge was to capture Stanleyville and save several hundred civilians mostly Europeans and missionaries who were hostages of the Simba rebels.

Later, in and , some former Tshombe mercenaries and Katangese gendarmes staged the Mercenaries' Mutinies.

It was hoped that employing mercenaries in Nigeria would have similar impact to the Congo, but the mercenaries proved largely ineffective.

When asked about the impact of the white mercenaries, General Philip Effiong , the chief of the Biafran general staff replied: "They had not helped.

It would had made no difference if not a single one of them came to work for the secessionist forces. Rolf Steiner stayed the longest.

He was more of a bad influence than anything else. We were happy to get rid of him. In May , Count Carl Gustaf von Rosen formed a squadron of five light aircraft known as the Babies of Biafra , which attacked and destroyed Nigerian jet aircraft on the ground [] and delivered food aid.

One of the leaders of the mercenaries was Costas Georgiou the self-styled "Colonel Callan" , who was described by the British journalist Patrick Brogan as a psychopathic killer who personally executed 14 of his fellow mercenaries for cowardice, and who was extremely brutal to black people.

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